In a time where the focus of the industrial revolution was looking towards steam-powered engines, Rudolf Diesel believed he could develop a smaller, more powerful combustion engine powered by what is known now as "diesel" fuel.
Just a few decades after the first diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel, the popular uses of diesel-powered equipment began growing immensely.
At the time, diesel was seen for its immense potential as an affordable and capable engine that could bridge a lot of gaps the high costs of steam engines were leaving behind.
Rudolf’s vision for diesel eventually took shape just a few decades after his death in 1913.
After the first diesel engine automobile trip was completed on January 6, 1930, diesel engines and diesel fuel then grew to become critical components powering the global supply chain of today.
Where is Diesel Fuel Used?
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (SOURCE), most of the products used in the United States were shipped using trucks, trains, boats, and/or barges that are powered by diesel engines.
In addition, most construction, farming, and military equipment and vehicles are also powered by diesel fuel.
Diesel fuel’s track record in being a reliable energy is playing a significant part in powering the global economy.
With the US transportation sector consuming 47.2 billion gallons of distillate fuels in 2019, it’s fair to reason that the consistency of the US diesel fuel supply is extremely important to ensure the critical functionality of our economy.
Beyond diesel fuel’s industrial uses, diesel engines are also quite common in passenger cars.
In the year 2019, diesel cars made up 30% of registered new cars sold in the European Union.
With millions of diesel vehicles around the globe relying on diesel as an energy source, it is important for diesel to be ready-for-use even in extreme weather climates.
What is "Gelling" in Diesel Fuel?
With millions of diesel consumers relying on diesel fuel as an energy source, it is important to consider what happens to diesel fuel in extreme winter weather.
Diesel fuel is prone to “gelling”, a term used to describe the crystallization of waxes in diesel fuel in extremely cold weather.
This gelling can prevent fuel flow to the engine or clog fuel lines/filters, making it impossible for diesel engines to run.
For those who are accustomed to operating diesel equipment in extremely cold environments, this is likely something that is prepared for.
But for many, people have unfamiliarity with the chemistry of diesel fuel, and just how to best prevent their diesel fuel from gelling in the winter weather.
What Happens to Fuel in Cold Weather
Paraffin wax is a solid consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules.
These waxes are naturally occurring in No. 2 diesel fuel. In normal operation conditions of diesel fuel, paraffin wax would remain in its liquid form.
However, these waxes will begin to solidify in cold weather, and at 32 degrees Fahrenheit will crystalize and leave the fuel appearing “cloudy”.
With No. 2 diesel having a cloud point of 14 degrees Fahrenheit, as the temperature continues to drop fuel integrity is further jeopardized.
The cloud point is the temperature in which the waxes in the fuel crystalize enough to where it becomes "cloudy" in appearance.
As the waxes continue to crystalize further, fuel flow is compromised, and operational reliability is decreased significantly.
At 10-15 degrees Fahrenheit, these waxes will cause the fuel to gel and clog the fuel supply and fuel filters.
When these crystals form enough to block the fuel’s ability to flow through the fuel filters, the Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP) has been reached.
The CFPP indicates the lowest possible temperature a diesel fuel can still pass through a 45-micron filter, and the CFPP typically falls within a few degrees of the fuel’s cloud point.
The U.S. Department of Energy also claims that studies show that cold weather has a significant impact on fuel economy.
This study finds that a car's gas mileage is approximately 15% lower when operating at 20 degrees Fahrenheit than it would be at 77 degrees Fahrenheit.
With such signifcant impacts on both operational reliability and the efficiency of the engine, it is important for anyone relying on diesel as a fuel source in cold temperatures to be familiar with the best practices of preparing diesel fuel for winter use.
How to Prepare Diesel Fuel for Cold Weather
To combat the effects cold climates has on diesel fuel, it is recommended to use a fuel additive for diesel winterization.
Winter-blend fuel additives, such as AFC 805 (LINK), contain specific chemical compounds that are proven to lower the cloud point of diesel fuel significantly.
The high treatment ratios of AFC 805 anti-gelling fuel additive allows you to treat larger volumes of fuel when compared to other anti-gelling diesel fuel additives.
Cold flow improvers that are in some fuel additives are used to dissolve the bonds in the paraffin wax, lowering the cloud point of the fuel. This makes it possible for the fuel to pass through fuel filters at a lower temperature than was previously viable.
By treating your fuel with anti-gelling additives, you can gain further confidence in your fuel supply, especially in extreme winter weather.
If you are operating diesel engines in cold weather, it is best advised to add fuel supply winterization to your seasonal maintenance plan.